As we age, our skin looks thinner, dryer and more fragile. It begins to sag, wrinkles and aging lines appear, and maybe age spots. There are many reasons for this, some intrinsic to the workings of our body, and some due to external factors.
Intrinsic reasons for skin aging
As we get older, we produce fewer new cells, and there is less fibroblast activity - these are the most common connective tissue cells. Reduced fibroblast activity means less collagen and elastin in the skin, generally meaning less elasticity. Decreasing hyaluronic acid levels also affect elasticity, and the skin's ability to repair. Added to all this, the dermis naturally becomes thinner as we age, and the volume of subcutaneous tissue decreases. All that happens as a matter of course in our body as we age. But what about factors outside of our body?
Extrinsic factors in skin aging
Different facets of social behavior and activity can accelerate the skin aging process. A regular sleeping position or habitual facial expressions can affect our skin. And nothing defies gravity forever, our skin included. But the primary external factor is exposure to sun, which results in what is known as photo-damaged skin, characterized by increased dryness and fragility, loss of elasticity, deep wrinkling and irregular pigmentation. Excessive alcohol use or smoking can also damage the skin. In smokers, the tiny blood vessels in the outermost layers of the skin narrow, and the reduced blood flow decreases the supply to the skin of the oxygen and nutrients essential to its health. Smoking also damages collagen and elastin, while the repetitive facial expressions of smokers can turn to wrinkles.